Philana Ling Lin, MD, MSc

  • Associate Professor of Pediatrics
  • Director, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Fellowship, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh

Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated 25% of the world’s population. Most people infected (90%) with Mtb are asymptomatic (called latent infection) and able to control the infection for their lifetime. However, some people will develop symptoms of active TB and spread it to others. The stages of Mtb infection are complex and not well understood. The immune system playsa key role in controlling infection from Mtb so it is no surprise that HIV/AIDS is the most common risk factor for severe forms of TB. The Lin lab is focused on key factors in the pathogenesis of Mtb infection as well as the host pathogen interaction during HIV-TB co-infection. The lab has focused on understanding the specific immune factors involved in controlling early infection and maintenance of latent infection such as TNF and important immune cell types (e.g., CD4 and CD8 T cells). These studies have been extended to address how HIV impairs the Mtb-specific immune responses during co-infection and to what extent these immune responses can be corrected with HIV medications. While HIV infection can now be controlled (but not cured) with potent antiretroviral drugs, patients on these medications are still at greater risk for TB. Ultimately the long term goal in the lab is to better understand the pathogenesis of TB disease during HIV-TB co-infection and develop novel methods of prevention and treatment against these two synergistic pathogens. Dr. Lin has also been involved in the epidemiologic surveillance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common bacteria that causes ear infection and pneumoniae in children. Before the advent of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, it was a common cause of meningitis and sepsis in young children. Dr. Lin is involved in a nationwide, multicenter surveillance consortium that follows the epidemiology of invasive cases in children.

Professional and Scientific Society Memberships

  • American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), 2000-Present 
  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), 2000-Present
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), 2000-Present
  • Society of Pediatric Research (SPR), 2009-Present
  • American Association of Immunology (AAI), 2012-Present
  • American Society of Microbiology (ASM), 2013-Present

Education & Training

  • BS, Youngstown State University, 1992
  • MS, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, 1996
  • Internship, University of Chicago Affiliate-MacNeal Hospital, 1996-1997
  • Residency in Pediatrics, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, 1997-2000
  • Fellowship in Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, 2000-2003
  • MS, University of Pittsburgh Clinical School of Medicine, 2001-2004

Selected Publications

Ziegler, Carly, Allon, Samuel J., Nyquist, Sarah K., Mbano, Ian, Miao, Vincent N., Cao, Yuming, Yousif, Ashraf S., Bals, Julia, Hauser, Blake M., Feldman, Jared, Muus, Christoph, Wadsworth II, Marc H., Kazer, Samuel, Hughes, Travis K., Doran, Benjamin, Gatter, G., James, Vukovic, Marko, Tzouanas, Constantine N., Taliaferro, Faith, Guo, Zhiru, Wang, Jennifer P., Dwyer, Daniel F., Buchheit, Kathleen M., Boyce, Joshua, Barrett, Nora A., Laidlaw, Tanya M., Carroll, Shaina L., Colonna, Lucrezia, Tkachev, Victor, Yu, Alison, Zheng, Henqi Betty, Gideon, Hannah P., Winchell, Caylin G., Lin, Philana L., Berger, Bonnie, Leslie, Alasdair, Flynn, JoAnne L., Fortune, Sarah M., Finberg, Robert W., Kean, Leslie, Garber, Manuel, Schmidt, Aaron, Lingwood, Daniel, Shalek, Alex K., Ordovas-Montanes, Jose, Lung Biological Network, HCA. SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 is an Interferon-Stimulated Gene in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Is Enriched in Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues. Cell. 2020. 181:1-20.  

Diedrich CR, Rutledge T, Maiello P, Baranowski TM, White AG, Borish HJ, Karrell P, Hopkins F, Brown J, Fortune SM, Flynn JL, Ambrose Z, Lin PL. SIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis synergy within the granuloma accelerates the reactivation pattern of latent tuberculosis. 2020 BioRxiv: 

Darrah P.A., Zeppa J.J., Hackney J.A., Wadsworth M.H., Hughes T.K., Pokkali S., Swanson P.A., Grant N.L., Rodgers M.A., Scanga C.A., Causegrove C.M., Laddy D.J., Bonavia A., Casimiro D., Lin P.L., Klein E., Maiello P., Shalek A.K., Roederer M., Flynn J., Seder R.A. Prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in nonhuman primates following intravenous BCG vaccination. Nature. 2020. 577 (778):95. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1817-8. 

Wong E.A., Evans S., Krauss C., Cadena A., Klein E., Maiello P., Causgrove C., Stein B., Tomko J., Mattila J., Gideon H., Thomas K., Lin P.L., Reimann K., Kirschner D.E., Flynn J.L. IL-10 impairs local immune responses in lung granulomas and lymph nodes during early Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol 2019. Accepted for publication.  

Kaplan S.L., Barson W.J., Lin P.L., Romero J., Bradley J.S., Tan T. Q., Pannaraj P.S., Givner L.B., Hulten K.G. Invasive pneumococcal infections at eight children’s hospitals in the US during 2014 to 2017. Pediatrics. 2019;144:e20190567. 

Darrah P.A., DiFazio R.M., Maiello P., Gideon H.P., Myers A.J., Rodgers M.A., Hsckney J.A., Lindenstrom T., Evans T., Scanga C.A., Prikhodko V., Andersn P., Lin P.L., Laddy D., Roederer M., Seder R.A., Flynn J.L. Boosting BCG with proteins or rAd5 does not enhance protection againsat tuberculosis in rhesus macaques. NPJ Vaccines. 2019; 4:21. DOI: 10.1038/s41541-019-0113-9. 

Diedrich C.R., Gideon H.P, Rutledge T., Baranowski, T.M., Maeillo P., Myers A.J., Lin P.L. CD4CD8 Double Positive T cell response during M. tuberculosis infection in cynomolgus macaques. Journal of Primatology. 2019;48:82-89.  

Cadena A.M., Ma Y.X., Ding T., MacKenzie B., Maiello P., Geber A., Lin P.L., Flynn J.L., Ghedin E. Profiling the airway in the macaque model of tuberculosis reveals variable microbial dysbiosis and alteration of community structure.  Microbiome 2018:6:180. 

Keshavjee S., Amanullah F., Cattamanchu A., Dobos K., Fox G., Gendelman H., Gordon R., Hesseling A., Hoi L.V., Kampmann B., Kana B., Khuller G., Lewinsohn D., Lewinsohn D., Lin P.L., Lu L.L., Maartens G., Owen A., Protopopova M., Rengarajan J., Rubin E., Salgame P., Schurr E., Seddon J., Swindells S., Tobin D., Udwadia Z., Walzl G., Srinivasan S., Rustomjee R., Nahid P. Moving toward tuberculosis elimination: Critical issues for research in diagnostics and therapeutics for tuberculosis infection. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2019;199:564-571. 

Cadena A.M., Hopkins F.F., Maiello P., Carey A.F., Wong E.A., Martin C.J.,  DiFazio R.M., Andersen P., Lin P.L., Fortune S.M., Flynn J.L. Concurrent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers robust protection. PLOS Pathogens 2018; 14:e1007305.

Full Publication List via NIH PubMed »

Academic and Research Interests

R56 AI139053, Contribution of CD8 T cells In controlling TB, (PI, 10% effort), 2018-2019, NIH 

R21- AI127173, Antibodies associated with Collaborator protection against TB in non-human primates, (PI, 5% effort), 2017-2019, NIH 

R01-AI134195, Influence of SIV replication on TB progression & Immunity, (PI, 15% effort), 2017-2021, NIH 

R01 AI123093, Predicting Protective T cell Responses in TB using Systems Biology Approach, (PI, 5% effort), 2016-2021, NIH 

Blood signature of reactivation Tuberculosis risk, (PI, 5% effort), 2017-2020, PA CURE  

R21-AI127066, Host & Pathogen Diversity in Mtb & SIV  infection, (PI, 10% effort), 2016-2018, NIH 

R01-AI111871HIV-TB, Co-infection: Tracking TB emergence after asymptomatic infection, (PI, 15% effort), 2014-2019, NIH 

R01-AI114674, Consequences of Reinfection with M. tuberculosis, (PI,10% effort), 2015-2019, NIH 

R01-AI118195PET, Probes Targeting Immune Cells for Imaging TB, (PI, 5% effort), 2015-2020, NIH 

NoneImmune Signatures of Differential NHP granuloma States, (PI, 10% effort), 2016-2018, Harvard SPH